The nineteenth century witnessed a series of revolutions in the production and circulation of images. From lithographs and engraved reproductions of paintings to daguerreotypes, stereoscopic views, and mass-produced sculptures, works of visual art became available in a wider range of media than ever before. But the circulation and reproduction of artworks also raised new questions about the legal rights of painters, sculptors, engravers, photographers, architects, collectors, publishers, and subjects of representation (such as sitters in paintings or photographs). Copyright and patent laws tussled with informal cultural norms and business strategies as individuals and groups attempted to exert some degree of control over these visual creations.
With contributions by art historians, legal scholars, historians of publishing, and specialists of painting, photography, sculpture, and graphic arts, this rich collection of essays explores the relationship between intellectual property laws and the cultural, economic, and technological factors that transformed the pictorial landscape during the nineteenth century.
This book will be valuable reading for historians of art and visual culture; legal scholars who work on the history of copyright and patent law; and literary scholars and historians who work in the field of book history. It will also resonate with anyone interested in current debates about the circulation and control of images in our digital age.
This open book is licensed under a Creative Commons License (CC BY). You can download Circulation and Control ebook for free in PDF format (41.4 MB).
Table of Contents
Law, Culture, and Industry: Toward a History of Intellectual Property for Visual Works in the Long Nineteenth Century
Who Owns What? Images and Copyright Law
The First Copyright Case under the 1735 Engravings Act: The Germination of Visual Copyright?
Who Owns Washington?: Gilbert Stuart and the Battle for Artistic Property in the Early American Republic
The Scope of Artistic Copyright in Nineteenth-Century England
The 'Death of Chatterton' Case: Reproductive Engraving, Stereoscopic Photography, and Copyright for Paintings circa 1860
Before an Image Was Worth a Thousand Words: Ben-Hur and Copyright's Right of Derivatives
Agents of Circulation: Entrepreneurs and Rivals
The Frame Maker/Picture Dealer: A Crucial Intermediary in the Nineteenth-Century American Popular Print Market
Piracy, Copyright, and the Transnational Trade in Illustrations of News in the Mid-Nineteenth Century
(Re)Assembling Reference Books and Recycling Images: The Wood Engravings of the W. and R. Chambers Firm
Navigating Intellectual Property: Architects, Sculptors, and Photographers
Architectural Copyright, Painters and Public Space in Mid-Nineteenth-Century Britain
Nineteenth-Century American Sculpture and United States Design Patents
New or Improved?: American Photography and Patents c. 1840s to 1860s
King Tāwhiao's Photograph: Copyright, Celebrity, and the Commercial Image in Nineteenth-Century New Zealand
'Photography VS the Press': Copyright Law and the Rise of the Photographically Illustrated Press