This book offers a theory for the analysis of how children learn and are taught about whole numbers. Two meanings of numbers are distinguished – the analytical meaning, defined by the number system, and the representational meaning, identified by the use of numbers as conventional signs that stand for quantities. This framework makes it possible to compare different approaches to making numbers meaningful in the classroom and contrast the outcomes of these diverse aspects of teaching. The book identifies themes and trends in empirical research on the teaching and learning of whole numbers since the launch of the major journals in mathematics education research in the 1970s. It documents a shift in focus in the teaching of arithmetic from research about teaching written algorithms to teaching arithmetic in ways that result in flexible approaches to calculation. The analysis of studies on quantitative reasoning reveals classifications of problem types that are related to different cognitive demands and rates of success in both additive and multiplicative reasoning. Three different approaches to quantitative reasoning education illustrate current thinking on teaching problem solving: teaching reasoning before arithmetic, schema-based instruction, and the use of pre-designed diagrams. The book also includes a summary of contemporary approaches to the description of the knowledge of numbers and arithmetic that teachers need to be effective teachers of these aspects of mathematics in primary school. The concluding section includes a brief summary of the major themes addressed and the challenges for the future. The new theoretical framework presented offers researchers in mathematics education novel insights into the differences between empirical studies in this domain. At the same time the description of the two meanings of numbers helps teachers distinguish between the different aims of teaching about numbers supported by diverse methods used in primary school. The framework is a valuable tool for comparing the different methods and identifying the various assumptions about teaching and learning.
This open book is licensed under a Creative Commons License (CC BY). You can download Teaching and Learning About Whole Numbers in Primary School ebook for free in PDF format (0.8 MB).
This book summarizes the vast amount of research related to teaching and learning probability that has been conducted for more than 50 years in a variety of disciplines. It begins with a synthesis of the most important probability interpretations throughout history: intuitive, classical, frequentist, subjective, logical propensity and axiomatic vie...
This twenty-third ICMI Study addresses for the first time mathematics teaching and learning in the primary school (and pre-school) setting, while also taking international perspectives, socio-cultural diversity and institutional constraints into account. One of the main challenges of designing the first ICMI primary school study of this kind is the...
This open access book, inspired by the ICME 13 Thematic Afternoon on "European Didactic Traditions", consists of 17 chapters, in which educators from the Netherlands reflect on the teaching and learning of mathematics in their country and the role of the Dutch domain-specific instruction theory of Realistic Mathematics Education.Written b...
The book presents the Proceedings of the 13th International Congress on Mathematical Education (ICME-13) and is based on the presentations given at the 13th International Congress on Mathematical Education (ICME-13). ICME-13 took place from 24th- 31st July 2016 at the University of Hamburg in Hamburg (Germany). The congress was hosted by the Societ...
The book presents the Invited Lectures given at 13th International Congress on Mathematical Education (ICME-13). ICME-13 took place from 24th- 31st July 2016 at the University of Hamburg in Hamburg (Germany). The congress was hosted by the Society of Didactics of Mathematics (Gesellschaft für Didaktik der Mathematik - GDM) and took place under the...
This work examines the main directions of research conducted on the history of mathematics education. It devotes substantial attention to research methodologies and the connections between this field and other scholarly fields. The results of a survey about academic literature on this subject are accompanied by a discussion of what has yet to be do...