This book presents theoretical framework and sample applications of variant construction. The first part includes the components variant logic, variant measurements, and variant maps, while the second part covers sample applications such as variation with functions, variant stream ciphers, quantum interference, classical/quantum random sequences, w...

This open access book shares impact stories – testimonies from various value chain actors who have been part of the Tropical Legumes (TL) projects, over the past twelve years. The Tropical Legumes projects led by ICRISAT in three parts (TLI, TLII and TLIII), constitute a major international initiative supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates...

Two dramatically different philosophical approaches to classical mechanics were proposed during the 17th - 18th centuries. Newton developed his vectorial formulation that uses time-dependent differential equations of motion to relate vector observables like force and rate of change of momentum. Euler, Lagrange, Hamilton, and Jacobi, developed power...

This open book shares the experiences of Tropical Legumes III (TLIII) project in facilitating access to seed of improved legume varieties to smallholder farmers through innovation platforms. It highlights practices and guiding principles implemented in eight developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. This book details key processes ...

The Business of Plant Breeding is the result of a study on demand-led plant variety design for markets in Africa, sharing best practices from private and public sector breeding programmes worldwide that are applicable to improving tropical crops in Africa.
Beginning with an overview of the principles of demand-led plant breeding, the book then d...

If you want to learn how to program, working with Python is an excellent way to start. This hands-on guide takes you through the language a step at a time, beginning with basic programming concepts before moving on to functions, recursion, data structures, and object-oriented design. This second edition and its supporting code have been updated for...

The title of this book was originally Think Perl 6, but since Perl 6 has been renamed Raku, we have also changed the title of the book.
Want to learn how to program and think like a computer scientist? This practical guide gets you started on your programming journey with the help of Raku (Perl 6), the younger sister of the popular Perl programm...

This free book offers a novel view on the benefits of a lasting variation between the member states in the EU. In order to bring together thirty very different European states and their citizens, the EU will have to offer more scope for variation. Unlike the existing differentiation by means of opt-outs and deviations, variation is not a concession...

This open access book presents the key aspects of statistics in Wasserstein spaces, i.e. statistics in the space of probability measures when endowed with the geometry of optimal transportation. Further to reviewing state-of-the-art aspects, it also provides an accessible introduction to the fundamentals of this current topic, as well as an overvie...

Even if you are an absolute beginner, this book will teach you all you need to know to write simple programs in C and start creating GUIs.
The first half of the book is an introduction to C, and covers the basics of writing simple command-line programs. The second half shows how to use the GTK user interface toolkit with C to create feature-rich...

This book is aimed at computer science undergraduates late in sophomore or early in junior year, supplying a comprehensive background in qualitative and quantitative data analysis, probability, random variables, and statistical methods, including machine learning.With careful treatment of topics that fill the curricular needs for the course, Probab...

Extremely versatile and popular among developers, Python is a good general-purpose language that can be used in a variety of applications. For those with an understanding of English, Python is a very humanreadable programming language, allowing for quick comprehension. Because Python supports multiple styles including scripting and object-oriented ...

OpenIntro Statistics offers a traditional introduction to statistics at the college level. This textbook is widely used at the college level and offers an exceptional and accessible introduction for students from community colleges to the Ivy League. The textbook has been thoroughly vetted with an estimated 20,000 students using it annually.
Ext...

This book is a a discussion of the calculation of specific formulas in finance. The field of finance has seen a rapid development in recent years, with increasing mathematical sophistication. While the formalization of the field can be traced back to the work of Markowitz (1952) on investors mean-variance decisions and Modigliani and Miller (1958) ...

The utility simply known as make is one of the most enduring features of both Unix and other operating systems. First invented in the 1970s, make still turns up to this day as the central engine in most programming projects; it even builds the Linux kernel. In the third edition of the classic Managing Projects with GNU make, readers will learn why ...

This book covers the standard material for a one-semester course in multivariable calculus. The topics include curves, differentiability and partial derivatives, multiple integrals, vector fields, line and surface integrals, and the theorems of Green, Stokes, and Gauss. Roughly speaking, the book is organized into three main parts corresponding to ...

Are you looking for a better way to deeply learn the fundamentals of JavaScript? Look no further!The foundation of all programs is the organization of its variables and functions into different nested scopes. Yet, most developers haven't deeply contemplated how and why these decisions are made and the impacts on code maintainability.The worldw...

In this open book, our goal is to study the fundamental concepts in programming languages, as opposed to learning a range of specific languages. Languages are easy to learn, it is the concepts behind them that are difficult. The basic features we study in turn include higher-order functions, data structures in the form of records and variants, muta...

Types are the central organizing principle of the theory of programming languages. Language features are manifestations of type structure. The syntax of a language is governed by the constructs that define its types, and its semantics is determined by the interactions among those constructs. The soundness of a language design - the absence of ill-d...

How to Think Like a Computer Scientist: Learning with Python - is an introduction to computer science using the Python programming language. It covers the basics of computer programming, including variables and values, functions, conditionals and control flow, program development and debugging. Later chapters cover basic algorithms and data structu...

C is a general-purpose, procedural computer programming language supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope, and recursion, with a static type system.
The C Programming Language Handbook follows the 80/20 rule: learn in 20% of the time the 80% of a topic. In particular, the goal is to get you up to speed quickly with C....

You can find a whole range of programming textbooks intended for complete beginners. However, this one is exceptional to certain extent. The whole textbook is designed as a record of the dialogue of the author with his daughter who wants to learn programming. The author endeavors not to explain the Java programming language to the readers, but to t...

Mastering Dyalog APL is a complete guide to the use of Dyalog, beginning with a thorough introduction to the APL programming language. Following this, the tutorial describes a large number of common coding techniques and discusses a variety of interfaces, including file handling and COM/OLE. Bernard Legrand provides a comprehensive introduction to ...

The purpose of the 3rd edition of this book is to give a sound and self-contained (in the sense that the necessary probability theory is included) introduction to classical or mainstream statistical theory. It is not a statistical-methods-cookbook, nor a compendium of statistical theories, nor is it a mathematics book. The book is intended to be a ...

This open book aims to provide novice programmers solid foundation of basic knowledge regardless of the programming language. This book covers the fundamentals of programming that have not changed significantly over the last 10 years. Educational content was developed by an authoritative author team led by Svetlin Nakov from the Software University...

Lecture notes for the Yale Computer Science course CPSC 469/569 Randomized Algorithms. Suitable for use as a supplementary text for an introductory graduate or advanced undergraduate course on randomized algorithms. Discusses tools from probability theory, including random variables and expectations, union bound arguments, concentration bounds, app...

This is an image processing textbook with a difference. Instead of just a picture gallery of before-and-after images, we provide (on the accompanying website) MATLAB programs (.m files) and images (.mat files) for each of the examples. These allow the reader to experiment with various parameters, such as noise strength, and see their effect on the ...

Programming patterns are solutions to problems that require the creation of a small fragment of code that will be part of a larger program. Hence, this book is about teaching you how to write such fragments of code. However, it is not about teaching you the syntax of the statements in the fragments, it assumes that you already know the syntax. Inst...

Python is a fun and extremely easy-to-use programming language that has steadily gained in popularity over the last few years. Developed over ten years ago by Guido van Rossum, Python's simple syntax and overall feel is largely derived from ABC, a teaching language that was developed in the 1980's.
However, Python was also created to s...

Freshly updated for GTK3, the 2nd edition of An Introduction to C & GUI Programming will teach you all you need to know to write simple programs in C and start creating GUIs, even if you're an absolute beginner.
The first half of the book is an introduction to C, and covers the basics of writing simple command-line programs. The second ...

In order to represent real life situations mathematically, we often use symbols to represent unknown quantities. We call these symbols variables. Each mathematical subject requires knowledge of manipulating expressions and equations to solve for a variable. Careers such as automobile accident investigators, quality control engineers, and insurance ...

This is one of the first books on a newly emerging field of discrete differential geometry and an excellent way to access this exciting area. It surveys the fascinating connections between discrete models in differential geometry and complex analysis, integrable systems and applications in computer graphics. The authors take a closer look at discre...